The Catholic Churches in Communion

This chart shows the various Catholic liturgical families (rites) and their ancestry.

Jerusalem, the place of the founding of the Catholic Church, came first in time. Then three major branches eventually formed within the Church: Roman, Antiochian and Alexandrian. Later on Constantinople completed the Pentarchy. (from the Greek Πενταρχία, Pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule")
Each Christian church of the Pentarchy was governed by a patriarch and considered a major episcopal see of the Roman EmpireRomeConstantinopleAlexandriaAntioch, and Jerusalem with its own liturgical Tradition. 
"The liturgical traditions or rites presently in use in the Church are the Latin . . . and the Byzantine, Alexandrian or Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Maronite and Chaldean rites. In 'faithful obedience to tradition, the sacred Council declares that Holy Mother Church holds all lawfully recognized rites to be of equal right and dignity, and that she wishes to preserve them in the future and to foster them in every way.'" (CCC 1203, The Catechism of the Catholic Church)
Current patriarchs of the five sees